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It was most likely on this precise point that Luther separated himself from Erasmian humanism. Behind the lure of beautiful language and the ideal of a trilingual man with a mastery of Latin, Greek, and Hebrew, this movement sought to educate human beings in order to inculcate wisdom and faith, which would be expressed first and foremost through love. Better educated humans were supposed to become better and better Christians. Although Luther loved ancient languages and eloquence, he did not share this optimism.

Over the years, the student transformed into a zealous monk who was appreciated by the vicar general of his order in Germany. Luther joined the convent to calm the anxiety he shared with his contemporaries regarding sudden death and divine judgment and sought peace through his reading. In it Luther identified sin with temptation and affirmed that humans were sinners throughout their lives, and were therefore incapable of deserving eternal happiness.

In his opinion nothing could wipe away the effects of original sin. Luther thus swept aside the entire optimistic dimension of humanism and the Renaissance that Erasmus had defended since the early s. Without the editions of Erasmus, Luther would not have been able to return to the Hebrew and Greek sources of the Bible or consult the complete works of the Church Fathers. Until the confrontation over free will in , Erasmus seemed to be a reformer and even a precursor of Luther, given how much he had denounced the sale of indulgences, the quibbling of Catholic theologians, and the practices and rites of the faithful.

However, Erasmus wanted a gentle reformation, without violence or clashes.

The humanist was dumbfounded by this Reformation which sought to impose itself on the Christian world. Erasmus vainly increased his calls for calm after Luther was excommunicated and outlawed from the Empire January-May Distressed by the violence that was ruining the humanist project, he published a discourse on free will in an effort to preserve the meaning of human effort, which Luther radically denied in his The Bondage of the Will The fundamental difference between the older Roman theology and the new evangelical theology was clear for all in this text.

The more the two men entered into dialogue, the more the gulf widened. Following the tradition of Augustine, Luther attacked the very sources of his rival, Origen and Jerome, while Erasmus maintained a critical intelligence until the end and tried at all costs to maintain the unity of Christianity in order to save the European humanist dream. His contemporaries did not understand him and pitted themselves against him, condemning his spirit of reconciliation and irenicism and soon held him responsible for the situation.

As Luther triumphed, Erasmus isolated himself from the unprecedented schism which divided Europe during the s.


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Until the end, and despite all of the disagreement, opposition, and breaks that books and correspondence brilliantly attest to, the two men remained connected by their training and approach to Scripture, especially the Epistles of Saint Paul. Their aborted dialogue ruined Christian humanism and gave Luther and the Reformation movement increased legitimacy. The Reformation definitively took hold within the European religious landscape, while Erasmian philosophy continued to nourish the thought of many irenists, before coming to a standstill during the Colloquy of Poissy in and the beginning of the wars of religion in Finally, for two centuries this conflict raised the question of the Christian view of humans and society: what was the European spirit?

What was the basis for the European dream? It was with respect to these very questions that Erasmus and Luther were definitively unable to agree. Schilling , Heiz, Martin Luther. Rebelle dans un temps de rupture Paris: Salvator, Skip to main content. Search form Chercher dans ce site.

Guide Michael Meyenburg (German Edition)

Doubts regarding faith. Print Wars in Europe during the Sixteenth Century. Themes of the encyclopedia Material civilization.

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Political epistemology. European humanism. Europe, Europeans and the World. Wars and traces of war. Finally, the top point would be either Spirit or self, depending on your tradition. Different systems mark this point in a number of different colors, such as purple or silver, and it symbolizes our connection to the One, the Divine, our true self. To perform magic that cleanses or banishes things away, you would draw the pentacle starting at the top point, and going down to the lower right, then the upper left, cross to the upper right, and then the lower left and back up.

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To perform magic that attracts or protects, you would still start at the top point, but go down to the lower left instead, reversing the process. Note: the symbol of the pentacle shouldn't be confused with the altar tool known as the pentacle , which is typically a wooden, metal or clay disc inscribed with the design.

Seax Wica is a tradition founded in the s by author Raymond Buckland. It is inspired by the Saxon religion of old but is specifically not a reconstructionist tradition. The symbol of the tradition represents the moon, the sun, and the eight Wiccan sabbats. Buckland's Seax Wica tradition is unlike many oathbound and initiatory traditions of Wicca. Anyone can learn about it, and the tenets of the tradition are outlined in the book, The Complete Book of Saxon Witchcraft , which Buckland released in Each group is autonomous and makes its own decisions about how to practice and worship.

Typically, even non-members can attend rituals as long as everyone in the coven agrees to it. The Solar Cross symbol is a variation on the popular four-armed cross. It represents not only the sun but also the cyclical nature of the four seasons and the four classical elements.

It is often used as an astrological representation of earth. The most famous variation of the solar cross is the swastika, which was originally found in both Hindu and Native American symbolism. In Ray Buckland's book, Signs, Symbols and Omens , it is mentioned that the solar cross is sometimes referred to as Wotan's cross. Typically, it is portrayed with a circle in the center of the cross-arms, but not always. There are a number of variations on the four-armed cross.

Carvings of this ancient symbol have been found in Bronze-age burial urns dating back as far as b. Although it's been used in many cultures, the cross eventually became identified with Christianity. It does seem to appear fairly regularly in crop circles as well, particularly those that show up in fields in the British Isles. A similar version appears as the Brighid's Cross found all over the Irish Celtic lands.

The concept of sun worship is one nearly as old as mankind itself. In societies that were primarily agricultural, and dependant on the sun for life and sustenance, it is no surprise that the sun became deified. For centuries, the Sun Dance has been performed as a way to not only honor the sun but also to bring the dancers visions. Traditionally, the Sun Dance was performed by young warriors. Because of its association with the Sun itself, this symbol is typically connected to the element of Fire.

You can use it in ritual workings honoring the sun or the power, heat, and energy of flames. Fire is a purifying, masculine energy, associated with the South, and connected to strong will and energy. Fire can destroy, yet it also creates and represents the fertility and masculinity of the God.

Use this symbol in rituals that involve casting away the old, and rebirthing the new, or for celebrations of the solstices at Yule and Litha. Although sometimes referred to as a Sun Wheel, this symbol represents the Wheel of the Year and the eight Wiccan sabbats. The term "sun wheel" comes from the solar cross, which was a calendar used to mark the solstices and equinoxes in some pre-Christian European cultures.

In addition to being represented by a wheel or cross, sometimes the sun is portrayed simply as a circle, or as a circle with a point in the center. The sun has long been a symbol of power and magic.

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The Greeks honored the sun god with "prudence and piety," according to James Frazer. Because of the sun's sheer power, they made offerings of honey rather than wine -- they knew that it was important to keep a deity of such power from becoming intoxicated! The Egyptians identified several of their gods with a solar disc above the head, indicating that the deity was a god of the light.

Naturally, the sun is linked with fire and masculine energy. Invoke the sun to represent fire in ritual or for associations with the direction South. Celebrate the sun's power at Litha , the midsummer solstice, or its return at Yule.